What is Information Technology? – Characteristics and, More
Information technology (IT) is the process of creating, storing, transmitting, and perceiving information and applying these processes.
Information technology is a process that uses a combination of means and methods of data collection, processing and transmission to obtain new quality information about the state of an object, technique or phenomenon. The persistence of information technology is creating data for analysis by people and making decisions based on it to act.
Although the concept of information technology is consider identical to the images of computers and computer networks, the use of the idea of IT cannot be limit to computers.
Information technology is made up of components such as:
- Software: application and system tools
- Organizational and methodological support
- computer hardware
Characteristics of Information Technologies:
- User operation in data manipulation mode (without programming), the user must not know and remember but must-see (output devices) and act (input devices).
- Transversal information support at all stages of information transmission with the help of an integrated database, which provides a unique way to enter, search, display, update and protect information
- Paperless document processing during which only the final version of the paper document is record. Intermediate versions and the necessary data recorded on the media are deliver to the user via the PC display screen.
- Interactive (dialogue) task solving mode with a wide range of possibilities for the user
- Collective production of a document based on a group of computers linked employing communication
- Adaptive processing of the form and modes of presentation of information in problem-solving
Information Technology In Business And Everyday Life
Most companies today make constant use of information technology. Let’s take the case of a clothing store that has a website where it presents data on its products and, in addition, uses email to contact its customers and suppliers. A computer allows operations to be recorded and invoices issued to buyers at the store. Stock movements are also recorded on the computer.
Stages Of Information Technology Development
It is believe that Computing began to develop after the arrival of computers. But actually, its history dates back to primitive times, when people shared data through cave drawings.
Let’s Look at The Main Stages of Information Technology Development:
Manual Computing (from ancient times to the second half of the 19th century). The also main tools of information technology were the pen, the book and the inkwell.
The interaction between people was carry out by sending letters, and its main objective was to transmit information to the recipient so that he understood what was meant.
Mechanical Computing (late 19th century to present) uses dictaphones, telephones, typewriters, and email. The goal and methods of communication are the same but more comfortably.
Electrical informatics (from the 40s to the 60s), this era is characterize by the appearance of the first computer hardware and software, electric typewriters, and portable voice recorders—the emphasis of information technology shifts from form to content.
In electronic Computing (from the 70s to the present), computers are increasingly sophisticated, and automated control systems (ACS) and also information retrieval systems (IRS) are created. Emphasis is place on creating meaningful information.
Informatics (from the 80s to the present), the primary tool of this technology is the personal computer (PC), with a set of computer programs to perform tasks for different purposes.
Computer Tools Are Of Three Types:
- Computational: automated devices to collect and process information
- Organizational: different kinds of teams to perform technical tasks
- Team communication: laptops, computers, smartphones, tablets and other devices.
Why Is Information Technology Important?
Information technology helps build and grow the business sector and also generate the highest possible returns. The time it takes for different sectors to generate business has been reduce to a minimum with the advancement of information technology:
- It provides electronic security, storage and efficient communication.
- Information technology needs computer applications.
- Computers connect Computing with the different organizations of the world.
On the other hand, they help the employees to maintain the records of their numerous clients from various companies. It also allows patients to contact doctors online and get advice about their health problems. Finally, the system allows the proper management of patient records.
What Effects do Information Technologies have on Organizations?
As we all know, a company or organization is link to performance, production, competitiveness and productivity. In this context, also implementing the different technological tools in companies is a clear need to optimize processes, improve and evolve.
Companies must be able to adjust to new technologies, modify their business models or adapt to changes proactively. Its benefits in business organizations are many, whether they are: process optimization, increased productivity, reduced costs, improved communication inside and outside the company, improved competitiveness, and also the ability to make much more accurate decisions.
The customization of automated control systems, communications and office equipment, and the development of local and global computer networks have a significant impact. Humanity is increasingly involve in developing information technologies, and also new professions relate to the sector are emerging.